For this milestone, you will identify a research gap in the articles you reviewed for your chosen track and develop a research question addressing the gap.

For this milestone, you will identify a research gap in the articles you reviewed for your chosen track and develop a research question addressing the gap. Please note there may be more recent developments in the field related to your chosen track but for this assignment you will only focus on the articles provided.

A. Identify a gap in the developmental psychology research presented in your chosen track. B. Develop a basic research question addressing the identified gap. C. Determine an appropriate research design that addresses your research question regarding developmental psychology, and explain why it was chosen. D. Explain how you will account for issues of ethics associated with your proposed research design. E. Explain how your approach to accounting for issues of ethics was informed by your review of the research presented in your chosen track.

PSY 211 Literature WorksheetArticle One

Citation of Literature

Watson, S. M., Westby, C. E., & Gable, R. A. (2007). Preventing School Failure. A Framework for Addressing the Needs of Students Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol and Other Drugs, 25-33.

Authors’ Claims

In the introduction, the authors review how children who are prenatally exposed to alcohol and other drugs delays or effect their learning and behavoiral problems by focusing on their abilities to shifting tasks, maintaining attention, and manipulating information based off memory. They believed that if educators have a better understanding of the nature of the disorder, they may be prone to selecting more effective classroom interventions that aligns with the deficits of those students based off the various risk factors related the prenatal exposure to drugs and/or alcohol.

Influence of Factors on Human Development

Based off the readings from the article it is to believe that environmental factor influenced the development of this study. A lot of the studies were school-based information (i.e. Surveys completed by teachers and professionals in the education field). The found that professionals in the education field in fact they underserved students with special needs. They agreed on needing more knowledge about the population of students and more training on how to teach and modify instruction.

Historical Significance

The article’s finding affects the historical evolution of developmental psychology because children exposed to drugs and alcohol prenatally are predisposed to a range of developmental problems that can negatively impacting learning. I to believe that drugs and alcohol used by parent during the prenatal period plays a big part in the developmental stages for kids. Developmental psychology looks at how one thinks, feels, and different behavior changes from birth to adolescent. Drugs and alcohol can hinder the cognitive and social development of a child.

Research Methods and Design

The researchers used data collected from surveys filled out my educational professionals (general, and special education teachers, speech-language pathologist, university faculty members, and preschool educators). They used to determine how well they are knowledgeable of students with disabilities and how to properly go about modifying work. The survey research design that was used was good because it gave specifics on area that educators needed to work on, but it should have included some statistics like numbers.

Ethics

Ethics weren’t discussed heavily in this particular study. However, I believe the study was still conducted ethically because those who participated in the survey participated willingly. The article did mention that teachers had to get parental permission to videotape students when they are engaged in inappropriate behaviors and have them evaluate their actions through a self-rating scale with adult guidance.

Article Two

Citation of Literature

(Mattson, Calarco, & Lang, 2006)Mattson, S. N.; Calarco, K.E.; Lang, A.R. (2006) Focused and shifting attention in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Neuropsychology, 361-369

Authors’ Claims

The authors in this article review learning and behavioral problems of children exposed prenatally to alcohol and other drugs by focusing on executive-function deficits such as difficulty shifting tasks, maintaining attention, and manipulating information in working memory. They discuss various risk factors associated with prenatal drug exposure so that educators can better understand the nature of the disorder and choose more effective classroom interventions that address the deficits of these students.

Influence of Factors on Human Development

Based off the readings from the article environmental factor may have played a factor in the influence of the development of this study. There was no difference between age, socioeconomic status with no significant difference when it comes to the basis of sex, ethnicity or handedness. The conducted a study that consisted of 20 children both with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and some Nonexposed Control.

Historical Significance

The article’s finding affects the historical evolution of developmental psychology because a child that is prenatally exposed to alcohol have the deficits in attention appearing to exhibit consistent and heavily in visual focused activity. They have a harder time maintaining attention over a long period of time. What I concluded about the developmental psychology from this article is because alcohol slows down or hinder the cognitive development it affects the ongoing learning on a child’s ability to successes while in school when it comes to sit throughout an entire lesson or being able to recount back what was taught..

Research Methods and Design

Forty children ranging from the age 9 to 14 years of age served as participant in this study drawn from a larger study of the teratogenicity of alcohol. For the visual and auditory focus participants were required to manually respond to visual or auditory targets all while ignoring visual and auditory distractions. For shift participants (being able to move from one thing to another) they had to respond to one after the other to visual and auditory targets.

Ethics

Information was confirmed by maternal or collateral report or through medical, legal, or social service records. The study was conducted ethically because it was a one-time consent needed by getting parent and/or guardian approval to obtain records. It fits in with the view of ethics historically because study was conducted by numerous of researchers along with two doctors; one with affiliation with the University of California.

Article Three

Citation of Literature

Dennis, Tracy; Bendersky, Margaret; Ramsey, Douglas; Lewis Michael (2006) Reactivity and Regulation in Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine. Developmental Psychology. 688-697.

Authors’ Claims

The authors claim that children prenatally exposed to cocaine may be at an elevated risk for adjustment problems in early development. They addressed their questions by examining frustration reactivity and regulation of behavior during a problem-solving task in cocaine exposed and unexpected preschoolers. In the end results indicated that cocaine exposed children took longer to attempt the problem-solving task and boys were the group that showed the most difficulties.

Influence of Factors on Human Development

The authors were trying to see the long-term psychological effects a child would encounter if they were prenatally exposed cocaine. Demographics and lifestyle information such as the mother’s race, highest level of education, income, and etcetera which influenced the study.

Historical Significance

There were no significant differences in the distributions of cocaine exposure, gender, perinatal medical risk, or environmental risk between participants who participated and those who refused to continue or were lost to the study from the neonatal period through 4.5 years of age. For over 20 years there have study shows that prenatal exposure to drugs may contribute to possible behavior and learning problems for children. Those exposed to it prenatally need just as much special attention as those who grow up in the household seeing parent and/or guardian using drugs.

Research Methods and Design

This study used data collected by mothers and children throughout a four-and-a-half-year span. For the children they had a complete a frustration task and only the behaviors during the frustration test were examined for measures of reactivity and regulations. For the mom they collected data by having mom fill out paperwork pertaining to her lifestyle, life history and usage of drugs.

Ethics

The study was conducted ethically because the experimenter described the study to the mother and obtained informed consent from her as well. At the end of the 4.5-year visit, 191 mothers in total participated. Of the 67 families not seen at 4.5 years, 15 moved out of the area, 15 declined to participate at this age, 28 could not be contacted for this age point, 1 child and 2 mothers died, and 6 went to foster parents who refused to participate.

 

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